Energy and resource efficiency

Small Modular Reactors: A Technical and Economic Assessment. General Considerations and the Case of Romania

This report has been prepared by Energy Policy Group (EPG) Romania with collaboration and sponsorship from Clean Air Task Force (CATF). This report received no financial support from the government, industry and private sector and it was prepared based on publicly available data, information, articles and scientific publications. Radu Dudău, EPG President Radu Dudău is President and co-founder of EPG. He was, from 2007 to 2023, an Associate Professor at the Bucharest University. From 2006 to 2010 he was Deputy Director at the Romanian Diplomatic Institute (Ministry of Foreign Affairs). He graduated in Physics and Philosophy from the University of Iași. He holds a Dr. Phil. degree in Philosophy (magna cum laude) from Konstanz University (Germany) and a PhD in Political Science (International Relations) (summa cum laude) from the National School of Political and Administrative Studies (SNSPA, Bucharest). He was a Fulbright Fellow with the National Security Program at Harvard Kennedy School of Government (2011), a New Europe College Fellow at the Danish Institute of International Relations (Copenhagen, 2006) and an OSI/FCO-Chevening scholar at Oxford University (1999-2000). His work focuses on energy policy, energy technology, and energy markets. Contact:

The Case for a Climate Law in Romania

Currently, Romania does not have a comprehensive climate policy framework and relies mostly on transposed EU legislation to formulate targets and plans. Institutional responsibilities on climate change tend to be scattered, with insufficient coordination, weak accountability mechanisms, and a lack of long-term planning based on scientific evidence.

Proposal for a Regulation to improve the EU’s Electricity Market Design: A Brief Assessment

From the second half of March to June 2023, four rounds of revisions have been submitted for the Electricity Market Design during the Swedish Presidency of the Council of the EU, bringing useful clarifications. The present analysis also reflects the main elements of the Presidency’s compromise proposal.

Circular Economy and Its Conceptual Hurdles

The concept of circular economy (CE) has become one of the most important pillars of climate change mitigation efforts as its implementation seeks to decouple economic growth from resource use.

Analiză succintă a noii ordonanțe de urgență privind plafonarea și compensarea prețurilor energiei

Trebuie reamintit că actuala criză este una a penuriei de energie, parțial cauzată de agresiunea neașteptată și brutală a Rusiei asupra Ucrainei, cu declanșarea unui conflict energetic între Moscova și Uniunea Europeană, dar și de anii îndelungați în care nu s-au realizat investiții în producerea de energie.

EU taxonomy of sustainable economic activities and its relevance for the Romanian energy sector

In this report, EPG analyzes the EU Taxonomy, a classification tool for sustainable economic activities, and its impact on Romania’s energy sector. The EU Taxonomy was meant to become the ultimate manual for financial institution to label their products as “sustainable”.

E timpul să luăm în serios economisirea energiei

Invazia cu totul iresponsabilă a Ucrainei de către Federația Rusă a declanșat în Europa un efort masiv de reducere a dependenței de importurile de gaze naturale rusești. Acesta devine o mișcare către independența energetică și un viitor prietenos cu mediul, în care pot participa toți cetățenii, adesea descumpăniți de incapacitatea de a contribui la rezolvarea greoaielor probleme geopolitice și climatice cu care se confruntă societatea.

Energy Efficiency Directive Revision Impact on the Romanian Energy Sector

The Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an essential instrument for achieving the energy and climate objectives of the European Union (EU). The recast EED aims to align its provisions – since many of them require increased ambition and enhancement of their scope – with the target of 55% reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2030.

Dobrogea – developing the first clean hydrogen valley in Central and Eastern Europe

In the European Union’s pathway to climate neutrality, decarbonised molecules such as hydrogen will contribute to eliminating ‘stubborn emissions’ in hard-to-abate sectors – e.g., high-temperature heat and feedstock in industry, aviation and long-haul shipping, and potentially large-scale district heating and long-term electricity storage.

Cum evităm viitoarele crize energetice prin deblocarea investițiilor în capacități regenerabile?

Creșterile fără precedent ale prețurilor energiei din ultimele luni au generat discuții aprinse despre cauze, designul pieței de energie electrică, prețul carbonului și dependența de importurile de gaze naturale. Răspunsul formulat până acum de legiuitori pentru rezolvarea acestor probleme (în principal, plafonări de prețuri și subvenții) nu oferă decât soluții de avarie, de termen scurt, care nu rezolvă disfuncționalitățile structurale ce pot duce la repetarea unor astfel de situații.

The utilizes` payment postponement for three months may be a good idea but with high failure chances

Although sanctioned in the press as a populist and anti-economic measure, the draft law on deferral of payment to utilities for three months, is based on a correct idea of social protection.

Proposals for Potential Energy Policy Priorities during Romania’s 2019 Presidency of the Council of the European Union

The post COVID-19 economic recovery represents a unique opportunity for setting Romania on a path of sustainable economic growth and for ensuring its competitiveness in a future decarbonised EU economy.

Energy Efficiency Drivers: Five Lessons for Romania from the IEA 2017 Energy Efficiency Report

How could Romania capitalize on such consistent evidence about how energy efficiency can actually work to the benefit of a state and its energy stakeholders?

Energy Poverty Today. Part I: Energy Access

This article is part of a series of three called Energy Poverty Today, presenting in a nutshell the main concepts and challenges of energy poverty.

The little smart-meter that could

In Romania, the National Energy Regulation Agency (ANRE) has so far approved 36 SM pilot projects in 2015 and 2016 for all eight distribution areas, targeting approximately 270.000 points of delivery out of a total of 7.18 million, which means less than 4% of the population.

Romania´s energy strategy and petroleum taxation. Lessons from Norway

Romania´s petroleum tax regime is under review, with lingering uncertainty about its future design. The article discusses strategic considerations of this review, in light of the country expected (but equally unclear and overdue) long-term energy strategy.