Publications

E timpul să luăm în serios economisirea energiei

Invazia cu totul iresponsabilă a Ucrainei de către Federația Rusă a declanșat în Europa un efort masiv de reducere a dependenței de importurile de gaze naturale rusești. Acesta devine o mișcare către independența energetică și un viitor prietenos cu mediul, în care pot participa toți cetățenii, adesea descumpăniți de incapacitatea de a contribui la rezolvarea greoaielor probleme geopolitice și climatice cu care se confruntă societatea.

Energy Efficiency Directive Revision Impact on the Romanian Energy Sector

The Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an essential instrument for achieving the energy and climate objectives of the European Union (EU). The recast EED aims to align its provisions – since many of them require increased ambition and enhancement of their scope – with the target of 55% reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2030.

Opțiunile României pentru eliminarea dependenței de importuri de gaze naturale din Federația Rusă – Perspective pentru 2023, 2030 și 2050

Șocul geopolitic cauzat de invazia militară a Ucrainei de către Federația Rusă zguduie nu doar sistemul european de securitate, ci și securitatea energetică a Uniunii Europene, care își acoperă nu mai puțin de 40% din consumul de gaze naturale prin importuri din Rusia. Între statele est-europene puternic dependente de importurile de gaze rusești, România are o situație relativ privilegiată, fiind un producător semnificativ de gaze.

CLUBUL CLIMATIC – următorul pas după includerea României în grupul țărilor dezvoltate?

Finalul lunii ianuarie a fost marcat de un eveniment a cărui importanță nu trebuie subestimată: demararea negocierilor oficiale pentru aderarea României la Organizația pentru Cooperare și Dezvoltare Economică (OCDE).

Fondul pentru Modernizare: O urgență pentru tranziția energetică din România

Fondul pentru Modernizare (FM) este cel mai important instrument financiar european destinat susținerii tranziției energetice în țările Europei Centrale și de Est până în 2030.

The Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism and its implications for Romania

The Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) is a heavily debated legislative proposal for a carbon tax on EU imports from five key sectors (aluminium, cement, fertilizer, iron and steel, and electricity). [1],[2] It has been proposed as part of the Fit for 55 package, with the purpose of preventing carbon leakage (the relocation of carbon-intensive production of tradable goods away from the EU, to avoid carbon costs).

The Revision of the Energy Taxation Directive and its Impact on the Romanian Energy Sector

The current version of the Energy Taxation Directive (ETD) is deemed outdated and misaligned with the EU agenda of promoting renewable energy sources, energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reduction. The European Commission’s ETD proposal is a unique opportunity to address some of the missing pieces of the current framework and sets the ground for encouraging the roll out of new, sustainable technologies and products by: building the tax rates based on the energy content and environmental impact, widening the taxation base, by including energy sectors that are not in the scope of the current ETD (aviation, shipping), developing mechanisms to incentivize new energy carriers and technologies, such as hydrogen and storage.

Renewable energy directive revision impact on the Romanian energy sector

The current Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) is being amended, as part of a broader overhaul of EU climate and energy legislation, to update the target and the legislation for delivering at least a 55% reduction in GHG emissions by 2030. The European Commission’s RED revision is the key EU legislative instrument for promoting the uptake of renewable energy sources and lays the foundation for higher RES targets at EU level and in every member state, mainstreaming renewables in buildings, H&C, industry, and transport.

Clean Hydrogen in Romania – elements of a strategy

Decarbonising the EU economy will most of all require direct electrification of over 60% of end-uses, based on energy efficiency considerations. However, this will not always be technically possible or cost-efficient. Decarbonised molecules, such as hydrogen, will also contribute to eliminating ‘stubborn emissions’ in hard-to-abate sectors such as high-temperature heat and feedstock in industry, aviation and long-haul shipping, and possibly large-scale district heating and long-term electricity storage, thus increasing the flexibility and resilience of the energy system.

Romania’s Post COVID-19 Recovery – Enabling a Green Transformation of the Economy

The COVID-19 pandemic and the restrictions imposed by governments throughout the world caused one of the greatest economic crises ever experienced given its magnitude and new nature. To assist countries to recover from the crisis and set their economies on a path towards resilient economic recovery, the EU agreed on a comprehensive financial package of €672.5 billion to be made available in the form of low interest loans and grants through the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF). To access these funds, member states must elaborate National Recovery and Resilience Plans (NRRPs), with investments and reforms in line with the broader EU objectives, including the green and digital transitions. The NRRPs must allocate at least 37% of expenditure to climate action and progress towards other environmental objectives of the European Green Deal.

COP26: hope and disappointment in the “new normal”

“New normal” has become the buzzword of a world still reeling from the Covid-19 outbreak. But as it sought to break through the new normal of lockdowns and restrictions, the 25,000-strong COP26 gathering in Glasgow may have become the latest addition to the “new normal” of climate change negotiations: bold commitments that inspire hope, while their implementation plans ring hollow and seed doubt.

Carbon capture and storage – the Gordian knot of decarbonization in Central and Eastern Europe

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) refers to a chain of technologies deployed to capture, transport and store CO2 away from the atmosphere, mitigating its warming effect on the climate. For each step in the CCS process, a range of technologies has been developed and tested for different industries and operating conditions, making CCS a complex value chain rather than a single, “off-the-shelf” technology as it is sometimes portrayed

Dobrogea – developing the first clean hydrogen valley in Central and Eastern Europe

In the European Union’s pathway to climate neutrality, decarbonised molecules such as hydrogen will contribute to eliminating ‘stubborn emissions’ in hard-to-abate sectors – e.g., high-temperature heat and feedstock in industry, aviation and long-haul shipping, and potentially large-scale district heating and long-term electricity storage.

COP26: hope and disappointment in the “new normal”

“New normal” has become the buzzword of a world still reeling from the Covid-19 outbreak. But as it sought to break through the new normal of lockdowns and restrictions, the 25,000-strong COP26 gathering in Glasgow may have become the latest addition to the “new normal” of climate change negotiations: bold commitments that inspire hope, while their implementation plans ring hollow and seed doubt.

Cum evităm viitoarele crize energetice prin deblocarea investițiilor în capacități regenerabile?

Creșterile fără precedent ale prețurilor energiei din ultimele luni au generat discuții aprinse despre cauze, designul pieței de energie electrică, prețul carbonului și dependența de importurile de gaze naturale. Răspunsul formulat până acum de legiuitori pentru rezolvarea acestor probleme (în principal, plafonări de prețuri și subvenții) nu oferă decât soluții de avarie, de termen scurt, care nu rezolvă disfuncționalitățile structurale ce pot duce la repetarea unor astfel de situații.

Code of Good Practice for Renewable Energy in Romania

The present paper comes at a crucial time in the country’s energy transition, to applaud past successes, highlight sector specific challenges and opportunities, and bring together public and private stakeholders united by one simple mission – creating a framework that is both climate friendly and economically viable, for the generations to come.

Building momentum for the long-term CCS deployment in the CEE region – CCS4CEE

Captarea, stocarea și utilizarea dioxidului de carbon (CCUS) pot avea o contribuție importantă la decarbonarea economiei europene. Pe lângă prezența la nivel național a unor actori industriali pentru care tehnologia CCS poate reprezenta o opțiune de decarbonare, România dispune de un potențial geologic notabil pentru stocarea de CO2.

Building momentum for the long-term CCS deployment in the CEE region – CCS4CEE

Pentru a evalua dimensiunea potențială a pieței de captare și stocare a carbonului (CCS) și a celei de captare și utilizare a carbonului (CCU) din România, această secțiune oferă o vedere de ansamblu a evoluției emisiilor interne de CO2 și a surselor acestora, precum și un indiciu privind dimensiunea economică a principalelor sectoare în care CCS (și, într-o oarecare măsură, CCU) ar putea oferi soluții viabile de decarbonizare.

Building momentum for the long-term CCS deployment in the CEE region – CCS4CEE

Pentru a evalua dimensiunea potențială a pieței de captare și stocare a carbonului (CCS) și a celei de captare și utilizare a carbonului (CCU) din România, această secțiune oferă o vedere de ansamblu a evoluției emisiilor interne de CO2 și a surselor acestora, precum și un indiciu privind dimensiunea economică a principalelor sectoare în care CCS (și, într-o oarecare măsură, CCU) ar putea oferi soluții viabile de decarbonizare.

Ten Priority Areas for Romania Post COVID-19 Recovery: A Focus on Energy and Climate Policy

The post COVID-19 economic recovery represents a unique opportunity for setting Romania on a path of sustainable economic growth and for ensuring its competitiveness in a future decarbonised EU economy.

Falling behind the pack? Romania’s lack of ambition in non-ETS sectors may undermine the prospects for reaching the European Green Deal objectives

This policy brief argues that Romania’s lack of ambitiousness, especially in sectors that are not part of the Emissions Trading System, such as transport, buildings and agriculture, may both undermine the country’s ability to reach climate neutrality by 2050 and could put the Romanian economy at a comparative disadvantage compared to early movers.

Energy System Integration and the Role of Hydrogen

The sudden interest for hydrogen in Romania is lacking though a robust foundation in policy analysis and planning, having been fueled almost entirely by the momentum that the topic has received at EU and international levels.

Accelerated lignite exit in Bulgaria, Romania and Greece

All three countries can phase out lignite without implications for the security of supply, with only a few hard coal power plants remaining in the system – the study finds. The difficulties lie in job losses and an increase in end-user prices, which are both politically sensitive consequences of the phase-out.

The utilizes` payment postponement for three months may be a good idea but with high failure chances

Although sanctioned in the press as a populist and anti-economic measure, the draft law on deferral of payment to utilities for three months, is based on a correct idea of social protection.

The Impact of the COVID-19 Crisis on the European Green Deal: A Focus on Romania and Southeast Europe

The dip in carbon prices, also a result of lower energy demand, shows the adversarial impact that the coronavirus crisis can have on the European Green Deal. In Romania, a drop in energy prices threatens further investments in the sector, while potentially ill-conceived governmental interventions risk creating lasting and unforeseen imbalances

The day the oil markets crashed – again. Is this time different?

The global oil industry will continue to be battered by the constraints of climate policies, divestment and lowering returns. True, a depressed oil price environment disincentivizes investment in renewable energy sources, electromobility and, alas, energy efficiency – a lesson well learned in the aftermath of the 2014 oil industry downturn.

Oil markets in 2020: fundamental drivers and geopolitical uncertainties

The fundamental market drivers are pointing at a balanced oil market in 2020, with a Brent price mostly within the $60-70 a barrel – unless, that is, a massive escalation of the geopolitical tensions occurs, following the targeted killing of Iranian general Soleimani, causing large and indeterminate oil supply disruption.

Three stereotypes of the Romanian energy establishment

“Energy markets cannot be trusted, either for affordable prices or security of supply.” Closely related, this cliché is probably the easiest to notice in policy and regulation.

The Decarbonisation Challenge of Southeast Europe: A Case Study of Romania

This paper uses Romania as a case study to illustrate the SEE situation. First, this article briefly summarises the general European context and the framework through which member states will cooperate in the area of energy policy. Second, it showcases the energy and climate strategies of Romania. Third, it turns to some of the main barriers that the country is currently facing in reforming its energy markets. The final part of the article summarises the findings, while also suggesting some avenues that may be pursued to overcome the challenges of decarbonisation in SEE.

The opportunities of the Modernisation Fund for the energy transition in Central and Eastern Europe. State of play and implementation issues

One important conclusion from the workshop has been that there is a need for a dialogue between the Ministry of Energy and private and public stakeholders to discuss objectives and priorities in line with the long-term objectives of Romania and the EU.

The Draft of the Romanian National Energy-Climate Plan 2021-2030

The analysis carried out in this report shows that the manner in which the NECP draft accommodates the net increases in electricity generation capacity by 2030 for virtually all forms of primary energy – except for the natural gas units, whose aggregate capacity stagnates, and of coal, for which an implausibly low decrease is expected – is to rely on a massive increase in final energy consumption to 341 TWh in 2030 compared to 269 TWh in the PRIMES 2016 projection, and 300 TWh in the Romanian Energy Strategy 2019-2030, with an Outlook to 2050

The Governance of the Energy Union: A New Framework for Cooperation

One of the most important outcomes of this legislative act is the requirement for governments to produce Integrated National Energy and Climate Plans. These plans must elaborate on the main priorities, strategies and actions to be taken within a 10-year period, covering all the five main areas of the Energy Union (security of supply, the internal energy market, energy efficiency, decarbonisation, and research and innovation).

The Governance of the Energy Union: A New Framework for Cooperation

One of the most important outcomes of this legislative act is the requirement for governments to produce Integrated National Energy and Climate Plans. These plans must elaborate on the main priorities, strategies and actions to be taken within a 10-year period, covering all the five main areas of the Energy Union (security of supply, the internal energy market, energy efficiency, decarbonisation, and research and innovation).

Natural Gas: Facing a Pricy Winter

This analysis details the relevance of each component in the mix, explaining how gas shortages are usually dealt with, and presents the next regulatory steps essential to cover gas demand.

The centralized market as a prerequisite to a gas hub. Lessons for Romania

In a market economy, the term hub generally refers to the intersection of several commercial routes, where an abundance of merchandise from various sources prompts the closing of many deals “on the spot,” transparently, with amounts and prices known to all traders present.

The Outlook for natural gas in Romania and proposals for its value-added capitalization

This report analyzes the current natural gas sector from the point of view of reserves, infrastructure and market setup. The study also addresses the prospects for the evolution of different segments of natural gas consumption by 2030 and provides appropriate policy and regulation recommendations which would lead to the value-added capitalization, on the Romanian Market, of the expected Black Sea natural gas production but also of onshore deposits.

Proposals for Potential Energy Policy Priorities during Romania’s 2019 Presidency of the Council of the European Union

The post COVID-19 economic recovery represents a unique opportunity for setting Romania on a path of sustainable economic growth and for ensuring its competitiveness in a future decarbonised EU economy.

Energy Efficiency Drivers: Five Lessons for Romania from the IEA 2017 Energy Efficiency Report

How could Romania capitalize on such consistent evidence about how energy efficiency can actually work to the benefit of a state and its energy stakeholders?

Energy Poverty Today. Part I: Energy Access

This article is part of a series of three called Energy Poverty Today, presenting in a nutshell the main concepts and challenges of energy poverty.

Tackling grid loss

Grid losses are a matter of grid stability and therefore a matter of national priority. Every country in the world would want to include this matter amongst its critical governance topics and address it through its policies and stakeholders’ actions

Low emission road transport

The policy paper presents the main legislative provisions and European strategic objectives regarding low emission mobility and several recommendations for the transposition of European provisions in Romanian legislation.

Smart Grid Network: the next big step

Most of the world relies on electricity systems build around 50 years ago. These are inefficient and cannot offer an appropriate response to today´s urgent global challenges. The estimated investment requirements in energy infrastructure are $13 trillion for the next 20 years. This poses an eminent need and opportunity to shift towards a low carbon, efficient and clean energy system. Smart grids will be a strong enabler of this transition.

Three stereotypes of the Romanian energy establishment

Most of the world relies on electricity systems build around 50 years ago. These are inefficient and cannot offer an appropriate response to today´s urgent global challenges. The estimated investment requirements in energy infrastructure are $13 trillion for the next 20 years. This poses an eminent need and opportunity to shift towards a low carbon, efficient and clean energy system. Smart grids will be a strong enabler of this transition.

The little smart-meter that could

In Romania, the National Energy Regulation Agency (ANRE) has so far approved 36 SM pilot projects in 2015 and 2016 for all eight distribution areas, targeting approximately 270.000 points of delivery out of a total of 7.18 million, which means less than 4% of the population.

The new royalties’ framework in the Romanian O&G upstream

The Economy Ministry published in October the draft law for mineral, petroleum, and hydro-mineral resources. The document includes a much anticipated new royalties’ framework for the upstream O&G sector.

Romania´s energy strategy and petroleum taxation. Lessons from Norway

Romania´s petroleum tax regime is under review, with lingering uncertainty about its future design. The article discusses strategic considerations of this review, in light of the country expected (but equally unclear and overdue) long-term energy strategy.

History of unitization-based cooperation in the development of offshore cross-border deposits. Part I

This paper traces the history of how states came to cooperate in the development of offshore cross-border oil or gas deposits. First, it explains the shift in how a state´s offshore has come to be viewed from “open to all” to sovereign rights over an exclusive economic zone and finally to cooperation in the interest of all parties concerned. Secondly, it discusses the types of agreements states signed and the problems these agreements solve.

The clean energy transition and the geopolitics of technology metals

Wind turbines, PV panels and hi-power batteries are pillars of the transition to clean electricity generation and low-emission transports. Confidence in their future costs reductions is paramount for both investors and policy makers. But while such investments are expected to grow massively in the coming years, constraints of a different kind will have to be kept in mind.

The Oil Market’s Fall Upswing

Is this a turning point towards substantially higher oil prices? Most likely not. The same rebalancing mechanism of shale oil producers kicking in at higher crude prices will be prompted. However, we may well see a longer-lived equilibrium around $60 a barrel of Brent, which can make everyone happy for a couple of years.

Renewable energy and the conundrum of the Romanian irrigation system

Some say statistics lie and this is sometimes true. However, oftentimes statistical figures are so striking that underlying facts become obvious. At the European level, the irrigation systems differ a lot by technology, but also in terms of irrigable and irrigated areas. According to 2013 data provided by Eurostat, there are important discrepancies between member states.

Natural Gas in the Romanian Energy Mix: Strategic Importance and Circumstantial Barriers

Natural gas is the most important form of energy in Romania’s the final consumption structure. In 2015, gas accounted for 29% of the total demand, followed by oil products with 26%, 19% renewable energy sources (RES (including hydro), 17% coal and 9% nuclear energy. Gas consumption is almost equally divided between the domestic and industrial sectors – in the latter gas is used primarily in the production of electricity and as raw material in petro chemistry.

World oil market in 2017: Contango or backwardation?

Important market players already bet that days with oversupply of crude oil will soon to be outdated and that the market will return to balance – and therefore back in the situation backwards.

Turkmenistan’s gas hurdles: No end in sight

Plummeting oil prices and fallen revenues triggered a chain reaction in Turkmenistan, which has a current account deficit of about $6 bn. Ashgabat devalued the currency by 19%. There have been reports of massive food shortages and unpaid wages.

32 Gas market liberalisation. GEO64/2016 and its effects

How much will we pay for natural gas in 2017?

An analysis of the evolution of electricity prices in January 2017

Given that Romania is quickly moving towards the completion of a centralized natural gas trading market – including through the elimination, from April 2017, of the predetermined price for the internal production of natural gas – it is necessary to make use of the current mechanisms and specific regulations, and to introduce new ones, to limit the effects of possible massive price volatility caused by speculative behavior

Reflections on the New Romanian Energy Strategy

The Energy Ministry posted on December 19 the Energy Strategy of Romania 2016-2030, with an Outlook to 2050. It has been a long-awaited document, on which stakeholders have for years pinned hopes about favored energy policies and from which decision-makers, public and private, expect guidance in the coming years.

Romania holds first capacity auction for Isaccea – Negru Vodă pipeline

Romania’s capacity auction is a significant step in regional gas market opening. At the end of July 2016, Transgaz has signed gasinterconnection agreements with its Bulgarian and Ukrainian counterparts in order to increase interconnectivity and allow bidirectional flow from Ukraine to Greece.

Analysis on the constitutionality of the introduction of a tax on additional profit on the holders of oil agreements

The introduction of the additional tax must be fair, proportionate, reasonable, fair, and the level of taxation must be determined according to objective, rational financial criteria corresponding to the taxpayer contribution (according to the Romanian Counstitutional Court practice)

Natural monopolies:the case of Romania’s distribution network

In Romania, a number of industrial sectors that serve the public interest are strictly regulated – natural gas, railroad or electricity systems, to name a few. As such, for the local energy sector, and particularly for electricity, the transmission and distribution services are regulated as “natural monopolies”

The Threats that Cloud Romania’s Upstream Promise

Romania does offer potential for becoming a regional gas hub. Also, gas exploration, production and transportation networks still need innovative approaches, reform and development.

The household energy market in Romania is in a process of liberalization. Or is it?

The adoption of a system that will allow a step-by-step liberalization of energy prices has proved to be an inspired measure, as Romanians would not have been ready for a sudden, direct shift to a free market. The ongoing debates in the Romanian society on vulnerable consumers emphasize just that

Water tax for Hydroelectric Power Plants

This analysis focuses on the tax applied to the water used by hydroelectric power plants in Romania. This study also includes information on similar water taxes around Europe and a comparison between them and that applied in Romania. Although set in Romania in 2000 as a small tax meant to raise funds for development of hydro projects, this fee has increased significantly over the years, making it even harder for the hydroelectric producers’ activity. In the category of invented-out-of-nothing taxes one can find the fee imposed by NARW – the National Agency "Romanian Waters” (ANAR, in Romanian) for water used by power plants producing electricity from hydro sources (micro or large scale). True, this is not a fee that exists only in Romania, but it is nonetheless a bizarre cost that hydroelectric producers must pay. Actually, more than 40% of the energy produced from hydro sources in the 27 countries analyzed, at European level, incurs different types of water taxation. Out of these countries, 11 (9 of which are EU member states) pay different types of fees for hydro power generation, with Romania paying the most for water expenses, according to Hidroelectrica‟s (the main hydro electricity producer in Romania) special administrator.

Principles of a flexible and stable petroleum fiscal framework

Romanian Government’s new approach to the oil and gas fiscal regime has all the features of a rigid framework, with meager chances of remaining stable on the long term. But how should a flexible and stable fiscal framework for upstream O&G look like?

Oil royalties and the rule of law (or how the romanian state experiences a drop in self esteem)

A good deal of the political and media environment in Romania continues to promote or to dwell in confusion when it comes to the Romanian state´s gain from petroleum activities, popularly known as “the regime of oil royalties”.

The competitiveness of the refining industry in Romania and the EU

During the evolution of the Romanian oil industry, the refining sector emerged at the end of the 19th century by way of a massive import of foreign capital and advanced technology. In 1895 the construction of Steaua Română refinery started in Câmpina, one of the largest in Europe of that time, with capital of Deutsche Bank.

How are we to pay the energy bills?

The creation of a regional balancing market calls into question the commercial viability of the classical electricity generation capacities which ensure, at the national level, this service.

“Fit for fifty” and perhaps for more…? tax regime for petroluem activities

Nobody can deny the sovereign right of states to charge taxes on any activity including petroleum activities. It is of utmost importance when, why and namely how such fiscal measures are established.

Elements of an optimal fiscal regime for Romania’s offshore sector

The investment cycle of an oil project is long-term – typically 25-30 years, or longer for offshore projects. In addition, offshore projects in particular require large upfront exploration capital investments. Also, the investment risk for offshore exploration activities is high, and the cost recovery timeframe can be over a decade.

The Idiot’s Guide to Running a Country’s Coal Industry … into the Ground

Our case study of worst practices involves two-state owned businesses, Hunedoara Energy Complex and Oltenia Energy Complex. They are both nearly insolvent, while the Government continues to pump money into their rescue, without, however, any real assurance that the effort will be worth it

The Gemasolar Thermosolar Plant: one step closer to energy storage of the future

Photovoltaic is a unique concept, if looked at how fast this technology has been growing. In the next decade, global demand could be significantly fueled by solar power. Today, just 0.5% of the electricity comes from photovoltaics worldwide. It may seem like a small number, but in 1998 this was 0.003% and if the trend continues, in 2028 it will grow to 50%. Therefore, by then half of the energy demand could come from solar-powered plants.

Biogas: A high-potential, sustainable, yet untapped fuel in Romania

For Romania to increase its biogas production 50-fold, a step change is necessary, even if the level of support is sufficient to make most investments profitable.

Things to watch in 2015’s energy

2015 will be the year of new gas transport projects, which are to connect at regional level the Southern Gas Corridor to Central Europe´s North South Corridor. Domestically, the Black Sea coast will have to be linked to the National Transport System.

Hurdles in the Path of Romanian Gas Market Liberalization

The 2018 calendar was supposed to bring a 3% increase in household gas prices as of 1 October 2014, as a first step towards timely liberalization. In light of the burden that would have thus fallen on households ahead of presidential elections held in December, the Government, through its Department of Energy, requested this delay.

Oil and Gas History – tradition and strategic opportunity

The history of the oil and gas industry has been and is an intrinsic part of the economic and social development of modern Romania. Also, Romania has the prospect that, by the end of the current decade, it will become a top producer of hydrocarbons at European level – especially natural gas.

The fairytale that wasn’t: the Iasi-Ungheni gas interconnector

The Iaşi-Ungheni interconnector is a 43 km long pipeline meant to transport up to 1.5 bcm of gas per year from Romania to the Republic of Moldova, under the Prut River that constitutes the border between the two countries. Construction works only took one year, but they followed three years of talks between the two parties. Costs reached a total of €26.4m, most of which was covered by Brussels and Bucharest.

Small-scale LNG – an opportunity for Romanian transportation

Compared to oil products, natural gas is clean burning, with virtually no particle and sulphur emissions, close to no NOx emissions, and lower CO2 emissions. Increasingly, it is also more affordable, despite higher logistics costs. Romania should follow the lead of many other countries around the world, and consider incentives for ship and truck owners to switch to natural gas.

COP21, Paris: national contribution plans

COP21 (The Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC) will be the event of this fall and end of the year in environmental diplomacy. The intention is to achieve a “universal and legally binding agreement” to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in order to keep global warming below 2° C from pre-industrial levels, beyond which it is presumed that the effects are irreversible.

No shale gas, after all. Implications of Chevron’s exit from Romania

The story of shale gas in Romania has somewhat been that of a fight. Chevron has had to deal with public opposition and outright protests, including clashes with police; mis- and dis-information, and a lack of understanding about the fracking procedure and its risks; overwhelming bureaucracy and a highly volatile and confusing legal procedure when it comes to unconventional gas drilling in the country, even though no moratorium was ever officially instated, like in neighboring Bulgaria.

The need to update the romanian oil and gas legislation for exploration and production

Energy Policy Group, in partnership with the law firm Pachiu & Associates and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), organized the roundtable discussion - Is it necessary to revise the Romanian oil & gas legislation?

The Ukraine crisis: legal and energy security impact in the Black Sea basin

The present study discusses the legal consequences of Crimea’s annexation by the Russian Federation upon the legal status of the peninsula’s Black Sea offshore (continental shelf and exclusive economic zone), with a focus on hydrocarbon exploration and production activities.

Romania’s energy policies, between liberalisation and environmental protection

Industrial competitiveness gains more and more traction across EU`s energy policy.

Energy independence vs energy security

For the energy public debate in Romania, there are often two seemingly interchangeable terms – security and energy independence. The two concepts are different, however, and understanding the differences is very important

Romania’s energy security options: 2014 and natural gas market projects

Romania's most important foreign energy policy project, the Nabucco gas pipeline, failed definitively in June 2013, when the competition for the transport of Azerbaijani gas to the EU in favour of the TAP (Trans Adriatic Pipeline) project.
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